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Health Informatics Glossary

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CA   -   A Certificate Authority (CA) is an independent organization or agency that issues, verifies and stores public and private encryption keys as digital certificates. Also called a Certification Authority, both terms are correct.   See Authentication, CP, CRL, Digital Certificate, DirectTrust, Encryption, FBCA, PKI, X.509

caBIG   -   The Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG) project was launched in 2004 by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In 2012 the caBIG project was wound down and the National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) was launched as a successor to caBIG.   See Grid, Informatics, NCI, NCIP, NIH

CAeHC   -   California eHealth Collaborative was a nonprofit organization established in California in 2009 to help coordinate e-Health activities in the state. CAeHC produced informational webinars and provided community context to expedite informed statewide collaboration in the deployment of decentralized HIE services. In 2010 CAeHC formally and openly opposed the centralization of HIE services proposed by CalRHIO. In the ensuing public debate CAeHC blocked the CalRHIO centralization agenda.   See CAHIE, Cal eConnect, CalRHIO

CAH   -   Critical Access Hospital.

CAHIE   -   California Association of Health Information Exchanges.

CAIR   -   California Immunization Registry. See IIS

Cal eConnect   -   A so-called "HIE Governance Entity" formed in 2010 by CHHS to achieve a conceptual merger of the CAeCH (decentralized) and CalRHIO (centralized) approaches to statewide health data interoperability. Structurally, Cal eConnect was an independent NGO contracted by CHHS to provide governance and operational oversight for the federal ARRA investments by ONC to establish statewide HIE services in California. In 2012 CHHS cancelled the "governance entity" contract with Cal eConnect and signed a new contract with IPHI for the remaining 18 months of the CHHS cooperative agreement with ONC.   See ARRA, CAeHC, CalRHIO, CHeQ, CHHS, EKCITA, GE, HIE, HITECH, IPHI, LANES, NCHIN, NGO, OCPRHIO, ONC, Redwood MedNet, SDE

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CalHIPSO   -   California Health Information Partnership and Services Organization, was one of the 62 Regional Extension Centers (REC) established by ARRA funding. In 2014 CalHIPSO will be wound down and closed.   See ARRA, CalREC, HITECH, REC

California eHealth Collaborative   -   See CAeHC

California Endowment   -   The California Endowment is a private, statewide health foundation that was created in 1996 as a result of Blue Cross of California's creation of WellPoint Health Networks, a for-profit corporation. This conversion set the groundwork for The California Endowment's mission: to expand access to affordable, quality health care for underserved individuals and communities, and to promote fundamental improvements in the health status of all Californians.   See CHCF

California Health eQuality   -   See CHeQ

California HealthCare Foundation   -   See CHCF

CalOHII   -   The California Office of Health Information Integrity is part of CHHS.   See CalPSAB, CHHS, HIPAA, HISPC

CalPSAB   -   The California Privacy and Security Advisory Board was launched by CHHS in 2007 as part of the HISPC contract. CalPSAB was disbanded as a cost cutting measure on June 30, 2011, along with many other state boards and commissions.   See CalOHII, CHHS, HISPC

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CalREC   -   The applicant for a statewide Regional Extension Center (REC) contract that was later rebranded as CalHIPSO.   See CalHIPSO, REC

CalREDIE   -   California Reportable Disease Information Exchange

CalRHIO   -   California Regional Health Information Organization. Launched in 2005 to centralize all health information exchange activity in California in a single statewide entity. When this did not happen CalRHIO was closed in 2010 as part of the launch of Cal eConnect.   See CAeHC, Cal eConnect, RHIO

CAP   -   College of American Pathologists.   See SNOMED

CAPH   -   California Association of Public Hospitals.

CAQH   -   Council for Affordable Quality Healthcare.   See CORE

Cardiac ECHO   -   See Echocardiogram

Care Pathway   -   Structured, multidisplinary plans of care designed to support evidence based practice through the implementation of clinical guidelines and protocols. Also called "Integrated Care Pathways" and "Clinical Pathways."   See Algorithm, Guideline, Protocol

CBO   -   The Congressional Budget Office provides nonpartisan budget analysis for the US Congress.   See OMB

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cc   -   [1] "carbon copy" indicating an additional recipient of a clinical message, such as a laboratory test result; [2] Creative Commons is a nonprofit corporation seeking to make it easier for people to share and build upon the work of others, consistent with the rules of copyright. Creative Commons provides free licenses and other legal tools to mark creative work with the level of freedom the creator wants it to carry, so others can share, remix, use commercially, or any combination thereof. The Redwood MedNet Health Informatics Glossary is copyrighted under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike License.   See Copyright, DRM, FOSS, GPL, IP, PLoS, Open Source

CCB   -   Change Control Board

CCBH   -   Connecting Communities for Better Health was a prior name for the Connecting Communities Workgroup, which currently hosts a a monthly webinar with technology, policy and legislative experts. A workgroup of the e-Health Initiative.   See e-Health_Initiative

CCD   -   The Continuity of Care Document is an HL7 specification intended to standardize the encoding, structure and semantics of a patient care summary document prepared for exchange between two electronic health data systems. The CCD specification is part of the Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) standard. CCD was developed as a collaborative effort between ASTM and HL7 by seeking a way to express the CCR within the CDA standard.   See ASTM, Consolidated CDA, CDA, CCR, HL7

C-CDA   -   Consolidated CDA, a clinical document type based on a library of CDA templates that represent a harmonization of prior HL7, HITSP, IHE, and CCD efforts.   See CCD, CDA, HITSP, HL7, IHE, Template

CCHIT   -   The Certification Commission for Health Information Technology is an independent, not-for-profit organization with the public mission of accelerating the adoption of robust, interoperable health information technology (IT). The first U.S. DHHS recognized health IT certification body, CCHIT began certifying electronic health record technology in 2006 and has operated as an ONC authorized certification body since 2010. In January 2014 CCHIT announced it would wind down the ONC certification and testing services and also announced an alliance with HIMSS without explicitly defining the new products or services. For more information visit the CCHIT web site.   See Certification, DHHS, HHS, ONC

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CCR   -   The Continuity of Care Record is an exported XML file format intended to be sent to the next healthcare provider when a patient is referred or transferred between clinics, hospitals, or other health care providers. The CCR standard file specification was developed jointly in 2005 by ASTM, Massachusetts Medical Society, HIMSS, AAFP, AAP, and AMA as a lightweight and useable alternative to the then cumbersome HL7 v3 options for transition of care clinical messages. Finally admitting that their then current messaging specification was not useful, HL7 worked with ASTM to develop the CCD specification, thereby expressing the CCR functionality within the HL7 CDA standard.   See AAP, AAFP, AMA, ASTM, CCD, CDA, HIMSS, HL7, XML

CDA   -   The HL7 Clinical Document Architecture is based on the HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM). The CDA seeks to leverage standardized XML-based markup formats to specify the encoding, structure and semantics of clinical documents for electronic exchange between different computing environments.   See CCR, Consolidated CDA, EHR, greenCDA, HL7, RIM, XML

CDC   -   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an agency in the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.   The mission of the CDC is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. The CDC is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.   See ASTHO, Biosurveillance, CDPH, CSTE, DEEDS, DPEI, HHS, ISDS, NACCHO, WHO

CDISC   -   Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium is a private intellectual property development organization that imposes a proprietary standard licensing revenue model on various technology verticals.

CDMA   -   Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is one of two competing global wireless signal standards for cell phones. Verizon, Sprint and US Cellular use CDMA in the US market. Globally, CDMA has roughly a 15% market share, as most of world's cell phones use the GSM standard.   See GSM, SMS

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CDPH   -   The California Department of Public Health. The mission of CDPH is to protect and promote California's health by making California a place where all people can enjoy the best health possible, and can live, grow and prosper in clean and safe communities. CDPH is part of CHHS.   See CDC, CHHS, WHO

CDR   -   A clinical data repository (CDR) is a database or datastore that hosts clinical data.   See Data Repository, Supply Chain

CDS   -   Clinical Decision Support.   See Decision Support

CeC   -   See Cal eConnect

CEHRT   -   Certified EHR Technology is a term invented by legislators to impose regulations on EHR software initially in the context of disbursing one-time HITECH incentive funds. The imposition by the legislature of a certification program on EHRs developed and sold by the private sector was a blunt policy instrument that likely made sense to legislators in the context of crafting federal oversight of economic stimulus funds and developing regulations to support the disbursement. However, imposing a persistent software certification process on the private sector may distort the commercial EHR development process. For example, the certification requirements conspicuously fail to recognize the urgent need for interoperability of clinical data. More distressingly, certification may have reduced patient safety by introducing new sources of clinical error.   See ARRA, EH, EHR, EP, GIGO, HITECH, Informatics, MU, Robo-text, SHARP-C

CEN 251   -   European Standardization Committee (Comité Européen de Normalisation) for medical informatics.

CentOS   -   Community ENTerprise Operating System, a community-supported Linux distribution derived from source code provided by Red Hat.   See Linux, Red Hat

CEO   -   Chief Executive Officer.

CERN   -   Conseil Européan pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN), known in English as the European Particle Physics Laboratory, where the World Wide Web was invented by Sir Tim Berners-Lee.   See HTML, W3C, WWW

Certificate   -   See Digital Certificate

Certificate Authority   -   See CA

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Certificate Policy   -   See CP

Certificate Practice Statement   -   A statement of the practices that a CA employs in issuing, suspending, revoking, and renewing certificates and providing access to them, in accordance with specific requirements typically provided in a certificate policy.   See CMP, Digital Certificate

Certification   -   A third party verification process intended to assure that all or part of a system conforms to specific published requirements.   See CCHIT, CEHRT, NIST

CFO   -   Chief Financial Officer.

CFR   -   Code of Federal Regulations

CHA   -   California Hospital Association.

Channel   -   In health data interface engineering, a channel is one name for the formal synchronous and sequential process model that enables content (objects) to be parsed, filtered, and transformed for delivery.   See Signal, Spoke

CHCF   -   The California HealthCare Foundation is an independent philanthropy founded in 1996 and committed to improving the way health care is delivered and financed in California.   See ELINCS, OpenEMPI, SBCCDE

CHCS   -   [1] The Composite Health Care System is the legacy health information system for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Under constant threat of replacement by massive contracts for commercial, proprietary software. [2] Center for Health Care Strategies is a health policy institute.   See AHLTA, DHIMS, DoD, FHIE, MHS

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Checklist   -   A checklist provides two primary benefits: first, as a memory aid for potentially overlooked steps in a complex procedure (e.g., is the head of each patient propped up at least 30 degrees so oral secretions can't go into the windpipe?"); and second, to make explicit the minimum expected steps in a complex process. Clinical care checklists, copied from airline pilot safety checklists, have been shown to increase the quality of health care.

CHeQ   -   The California Health eQuality program was established in 2012 at the Institute for Population Health Improvement at UC Davis Health System. CHeQ is the entity that was contracted to manage the final eighteen months of the statewide HIE services cooperative agreement with ONC for CHHS.   See Cal eConnect, CHHS, HIE, IPHI, ONC, UCDHS

CHFFA   -   California Health Facilities Financing Authority.

CHHS   -   The California Health and Human Services agency administers state and federal programs for health care, social services, public assistance and rehabilitation in California.   See CDPH, CHeQ, DHCS, DMH, DMHC

CHI   -   [1] Consolidated Health Informatics was a Presidential eGovernment initiative with the goal of adopting vocabulary and messaging standards to facilitate communication of clinical information across the federal health enterprise. CHI activities currently fall under the Federal Health Architecture initiative. [2] Center for Health Improvement [3] California Healthcare Institue   See FHA

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Child   -   In a structured terminology concepts are organized by assertions of parent and child relationships between the concepts. Descendant is a synonym for child in a terminology hierarchy.   See Concept, Descendant, Hierarchy, Parent, Relationship, Terminology

CHILI   -   California Health Information Law Identification is a search tool that assists in identifying California statutes and regulations related to the privacy, access, and security of individually identifiable health information.   See CalOHII

CHIN   -   Community Health Information Network. CHINs, formed in the 1990s, were early attempts to enable broad community health information exchange. Most CHINs were expensive disappointments and were decommissioned when the initial Federal funding expired, but the experiment was an essential investigation phase that enabled the subsequent rise of 0health information exchange services in the following decade. Two notable CHINs that survived are OCHIN (Oregon CHIN) and UHIN (Utah Health Information Network).   See HIE, RHIO

Chronic Care Model   -   Developed by Edward H. Wagner, MD, the model promotes effective change in provider groups to support evidence-based clinical and quality improvement across a wide variety of health care settings.

Chronic Disease   -   A sickness that is long-lasting or recurrent. Examples include asthma, diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, and chronic lung disease.

CHWA   -   California Health Workforce Alliance.

CIO   -   Chief Information Officer.

C!TL   -   The Center for Information Technology Leadership was an informatics research effort at Partners Healthcare.

CLIA   -   Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments.

Client   -   [1] A generic term for computer hardware or software which connects to a network and retrieves data from a server on the network. [2] A patient receiving home health care services.   See Home Health, Network, Patient, Server

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Client-Server   -   A network application architecture which separates the client (with or without a graphical user interface) from the server. Server software typically runs on robust computers dedicated exclusively to a specific application, such as an EHR. Client software typically runs on common PCs or workstations.   See ASP, GUI, PC, Server

Client-Registry   -   A master person index (MPI) service that is part of the OpenHIE project.   See MPI, OpenEMPI, OpenHIE

Clinical Data Repository   -   See CDR

Clinical Messaging   -   Communication of electronic clinical data either in real time messages (e.g., clinical readings from a home monitoring device) or in a store and forward format (e.g., referral consult, laboratory test result, etc.) pushed to an inbox or a workflow queue.   See HIE, Supply Chain

Clinical Practice Guideline   -   See Guideline

Cloud Computing   -   The provisioning of dynamically scalable and frequently virtualized computer network hosting resources as a service, generally on a subscription basis.   See ASP, Grid, SaaS

CMA   -   California Medical Association.

CMIA   -   The Confidentiality of Medical Information Act is a California state law from a prior era that governs individually identifiable health information (IIHI). Developed primarily to regulate the private exchange of paper records in health care insurance and financial transactions, CIMA is maladapted to electronic data services in the modern era and needs a drastic overhaul to be harmonized with the national approaches to HIPAA, PHI, and Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPP).   See FIPP, HIPAA, IIHI, PHI, PII

CMIO   -   Chief Medical Information Officer.

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CMO   -   Chief Medical Officer.

CMP   -   Certificate Management Protocol.   See CP, PKI, X.509

CMR   -   Confidential Morbidity Report. California Code of Regulations, Title 17, Section 2500, mandates that certain communicable and non-communicable diseases/conditions be reported to the local health department using specified methods and time frames. The CMR form is used in California for this reporting to the local health department.   See ELR

CMS   -   Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, an agency in the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. The mission of CMS is to assure health care security for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. CMS is the successor to the agency formerly known as HCFA.   See Common Data Set, GCPI, HCFA, HHS, IPPE, MPFS, MU, PE, PPPS, RVU

CNO   -   Chief Nursing Officer.

Code Set   -   A code set consists of data elements (the codes) and a description of each data element. The administrative simplification provisions of HIPAA require HHS to adopt standard code sets for administrative and financial transactions.   See HIPAA

Common Data Set   -   The MU2 common data set is defined by CMS. For example, the data domains required for the Continuity of Care document are: demographics, problems, allergies, medications, results, vital signs, and smoking status.   See CMS, Continuity of Care, Data Domains, MU2

Common Framework   -   The Markle Common Framework, as defined by Connecting for Health, consists of the essential technical and policy requirements to enable the secure and private interoperation of standard interfaces and health data exchange transactions at the local, regional and national level.   See Connecting for Health, FIPP, RLS

Community of Practice   -   See COP

Compiler   -   A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The primary reason for transforming source code into object code is to create an executable program.   See Computer Language, Computer Program, Executable, Source Code

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Computer Icon   -   A computer icon is a small pictogram used in file naming on a computer with a graphical user interface (GUI). The first such icons were developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.   See GUI, PARC

Computer Language   -   A computer programming language is formally constructed to communicate instructions to a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms.   See Computer Program, Executable

Computer Program   -   A computer program, or just a program, is software written as a sequence of instructions to perform a specific task with a computer.   See Computer Language, Executable

Computer Science   -   A scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.   See Informatics, PII, Protocol

Computer Virus   -   A computer program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. The term is generically applied to various types of malware with differing propagation and attack techniques. The term is sometimes mis-applied to malware that lacks reproductive ability (e.g., adware, spyware).   See Malware, Trojan Horse, Worm

Concept   -   A concept is a cognitive unit of meaning, an abstract idea or a mental symbol sometimes defined as a unit of knowledge.   See Algorithm, Ancestor, Attribute, Descendant, Model, Ontology, Semantics, Superconcept, Symbol, Taxonomy, Terminology

Concept Map   -   A diagram showing the relationships among concepts; a graphical representation to organize and represent knowledge.   See CUI, NP, VP

Confidentiality   -   A third party's obligation to protect individually identifiable health information (IIHI) from disclosure to unauthorized individuals.   See Breach, Disclosure, HIPAA, IIHI

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CONNECT   -   An open source software gateway developed by FHA during the NHIN Trial Implementation project. CONNECT is not an acronym, it is a federal project name that is officially spelled with all capital letters. CONNECT supports health information exchange, both locally and at the national level. CONNECT uses NwHIN standards to enable the secure electronic exchange of health data. CONNECT is especially useful for installations of legacy health information technology. Redwood MedNet operates a CONNECT gateway.   See FHA, IHE, NwHIN, Trial Implementation

Connecting for Health   -   A national public-private collaboration with goals to improve people's health and advance the quality of health care in the USA through innovations in information technology. Connecting for Health tackled the challenges of creating a networked health information environment to enable secure and private information sharing.   See Common Framework, RLS

Consent   -   In health informatics, consent refers to explicit and informed consent affirmed by a patient as part of the communication and decision making process between a patient and a clinician that results in the patient's authorization for a specific treatment or procedure, or in the patient's authorization to release a medical record for treatment or research purposes.   See Authorization, HIPAA, Patient

Consolidated CDA   -   See C-CDA

COO   -   Chief Operations Officer.

COP   -   In general, a Community of Practice (COP) is a self-directed cohort of participants organized around a specific topic.   See InfoLinks

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Copyleft   -   An intellectual property license with theoretically inescapable compulsory requirements for derivative works to be licensed under similar terms.   See Copyright, FOSS, GPL, Intellectual Property, License

Copyright   -   A legal monopoly established by a government granting to the creator of an original work exclusive rights to the work, usually for a specific amount of time. A copyright is a form of intellectual property, like a patent. Commercial software is typically protected by a copyright.   See Creative Commons, DRM, Intellectual Property, License, Patent

CORBA   -   Common Object Request Broker Architecture. A language independent object model developed by the Object Management Group (OMG). CORBA implementations are rare and its goals largely unaccomplished but its history is illustrative of the best intentions of software engineers to design towards interoperability.   See OMG, REST

CORE   -   Committee on Operating Rules for health information Exchange, a voluntary community standard for processing online eligibility and benefits enquiries, operated as a project of the CAQH.   See CAQH

COTS   -   Commercial Off The Shelf. A common procurement term generically describing commercial software with limited functionality, as compared to bloated and (generally overpriced) enterprise software.

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Countermeasure   -   An action, device, procedure, or technique that meets or opposes (i.e., counters) a threat, a vulnerability, or an attack by eliminating or preventing it, by minimizing the harm it can cause, or by discovering and reporting it so that corrective action can be taken. [ definition from RFC 4949 ]   See Keylogging

Covered Entity   -   A covered entity is a health plan, clearinghouse or health care provider that conducts any standard electronic transactions.   See Business Associate, HIPAA

CP   -   A certificate policy (CP) describes the different actors of a public key infrastructure (PKI), their roles and their duties. The CP is published in the PKI perimeter. The reference document for a certificate policy is RFC 3647.   See CMP, PKI, RFC, X.509

CPCA   -   California Primary Care Association.

CPO   -   Chief Privacy Officer.

CPOE   -   Computer Physician Order Entry, the historic term for electronic charting by physicians. CPOE originated in hospitals in the 1970s, and is a mandated feature of the HITECH "Meaningful Use" measures. CPOE software as a module requires and is dependent upon integration with other software modules (e.g., EMAR, eRx, HIS)   See EHR, EMAR, EMR, eRx, HIS, HITECH, Meaningful Use

CPRS   -   Computerized Patient Record System, the integrated, comprehensive suite of clinical applications built by the US Veterans Administration to create a longitudinal view of the veteran's electronic health record.   See CHCS, OpenVistA, RPMS, VistA, WorldVistA

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CPT   -   Current Procedural Terminology, a code set developed, maintained and copyrighted by the American Medical Association. The CPT code set provides annual licensing income to the AMA. The CPT code set, which accurately describes medical, surgical, and diagnostic services, is designed to facilitate billing and reimbursement in the American health care system. CPT codes are of marginal use for clinical care.   See AMA, ICD

CPU   -   The Central Processing Unit is the specific hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system.   See Executable

CQM   -   Clinical Quality Measures.   See NQF

Creative Commons   -   See cc

CRIHB   -   California Rural Indian Health Board   See IHS

CRL   -   Certificate Revocation List.   See CA

CRM   -   Customer Relationship Management (CRM) denotes the business processes used by an organization to track and organize contacts with its current and prospective customers. Also refers to the software that tracks and coordinates the customer relationship business process. CRM grew up from simple contact management systems into an integral component in an ERP system.   See ERP, MRP, MRP-II, Supply Chain

CRUD   -   Create Read Update Delete (CRUD) denotes the basic functions of persistant data storage. Each letter in the acronym can map to a standard SQL statement and HTTP method.   See BREAD, HTTP, SQL

CSD   -   Care Services Discovery (CSD) is an IHE profile that supports queries across related directories containing data about organizations, facilities, services and providers. CSD is established as a federated service using a "Care Services InfoManager" as one part of a choreographed interoperability layer (IL) that enables production and consumption of shared services.   See Facility Registry, HWR, IHE, IL, OpenHIE

CSHSC   -   Center for Studying Health System Change, a nonpartisan policy research organization.

CSRHA   -   California State Rural Health Association.

CSTE   -   Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists.   See ASTHO, Biosurveillance, CDC, CDPH, ISDS, NACCHO, WHO

CT   -   The IHE Consistent Time (CT) profile specifies the use of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) defined in RFC 1305.   See IHE, NTP, RFC

CTE   -   Conditions for Trusted Exchange, an obscure term introduced by ONC during HITECH policy rulemaking discussions.   See ONC

CTEC   -   California Telemedicine and eHealth Center.   See CTN

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CTN   -   California Telehealth Network.

CTO   -   Chief Technology Officer.

CUI   -   ("koo-eee")   Concept unique identifier.   See NLP

CVCAHIE   -   Central Valley California HIE. Possibly no longer active?   See EKCITA

CVX   -   Codes in HL7 v2.3 Table 0292, describing a set of vaccines that may be admininistered.   See HL7, MVX, QBP, VXU

CY   -   Calendar Year.   See FY





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